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Sabah / 沙巴


沙巴(马来语:Sabah),简称沙,是马来西亚的十三州之一,位于婆罗洲岛北部。沙巴是全国第二大区域,仅次于位于其西南方的砂拉越,与南方的印度尼西亚的东加里曼丹省接壤。

沙巴享有风下之地(Land Below The Wind)或是风下之乡之美誉,原因是沙巴的位置在饱受台风肆虐的菲律宾之南,但台风不会经过这里。沙巴首府为亚庇,前名为Jesselton。其他主要城镇有山打根、斗湖、根地咬、保佛、古达、仙本那、拿笃、斗亚兰、吧巴、实必丹、丹南、兰脑、吉打毛律、万劳等。纳闽在1984年由哈里士领导的人民党组成的沙巴政府交给了联邦政府,现为联邦直辖区,也是大马的唯一的岸外金融中心。

沙巴人分为三大民族:华人、卡达山人和巴瑶人,分别使用华语、英语、卡达山话和马来语。沙巴在1881年开始被英国统治,直到1963年8月31日脱离英国统治,成为为期16天短暂的独立国。1963年9月16日和砂拉越,马来亚及新加坡4个国家共同组成联邦,成立马来西亚联邦。

2010年沙巴人口为 3,120,040 人,为马来西亚人口第三多的州属,仅次于雪兰莪及柔佛。由于从菲律宾南部省份进入的非法移民人数众多,沙巴成为马国人口成长率最高的州属之一。

Sabah is Malaysia's easternmost state, one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. It is also one of the founding members of the Malaysian federation alongside the Crown Colony of Sarawak(Sarawak), Singapore (expelled in 1965) and the Federation of Malaya (Peninsula Malaysia or West Malaysia).

Like Sarawak, this territory has an autonomous law especially in immigration which differentiate it from the rest of the Malaysian Peninsula states. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo and known as the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It shares a maritime border with theFederal Territory of Labuan on the west and with the Philippines to the north and northeast. While a land border is also shared with the province of North Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south.

The capital of Sabah is Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton. Sabah is often referred to as the "Land Below The Wind", a phrase used by seafarers in the past to describe lands south of the typhoon belt.